## Introduction

Net present value (NPV) is a financial valuation method that calculates the current value of an investment by taking into account the time value of money. NPV is used to evaluate an investment’s profitability by comparing the investment amount to the expected return on that investment.

The time value of money is the idea that money is worth more in the present than in the future due to the potential for the funds to be invested and earn a return.

When evaluating an investment, it is essential to consider the expected return on the investment and the timing of those returns. This is where NPV comes in.

To calculate NPV, we first need to determine the investment’s expected cash flows over a certain period. These cash flows can come from various sources, such as sales revenues, cost savings, or interest payments. Once we have the expected cash flows, we need to determine a discount rate to use in the calculation.

The discount rate represents the required rate of return that the investment must achieve to be considered viable.

Next, we need to determine the present value of each cash flow. To do this, we divide the cash flow by the discount rate and then by the number of periods in a year.

For example, if the discount rate is 10% and the cash flow is expected to occur at the end of the year, we would divide the cash flow by 1 + (10%/1). If the cash flow is likely to appear at the end of the month, we will divide the cash flow by 1 + (10%/12).

Once we have the present value of each cash flow, we can sum them up to determine the NPV of the investment. If the NPV is positive, the investment is expected to generate a return greater than the required rate of return and is, therefore, a good investment. If the NPV is negative, the investment is not expected to generate a high return enough to justify the investment.

There are several reasons why NPV is a valuable tool for evaluating investments:

1. It considers the timing of cash flows, which is important because the value of money can change over time due to inflation.
2. It allows you to compare investments with different risk profiles, as the discount rate considers the risk of the investment.